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Kemal Atatürk [1] (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] until 1934, typically described as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, innovative statesman, author, and the founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its very first President from 1923 till his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship undertook sweeping progressive reforms, which improved Turkey into a secular, commercial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became referred to as Kemalism. Due to his military and political achievements, Atatürk is regarded according to studies as one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century.

Atatürk came to prominence for his role in securing the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) during World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Movement, which resisted mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Developing a provisionary federal government in the contemporary Turkish capital Ankara, he beat the forces sent out by the Allies, thus emerging triumphant from what was later on referred to as the Turkish War of Self-reliance. He consequently continued to eliminate the decrepit Ottoman Empire and declared the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its place.

As the president of the recently formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated a strenuous program of political, financial, and cultural reforms with the supreme aim of building a modern, progressive and nonreligious nation-state. He made primary education free and obligatory, opening thousands of brand-new schools all over the country. He also presented the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish women got equal civil and political rights throughout Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western nations. [8] In particular, ladies were offered voting rights in regional elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a couple of years later, in 1934, complete universal suffrage, earlier than a lot of other democracies on the planet.

His government brought out a policy of Turkicisation, trying to develop a homogeneous and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and surnames of minorities needed to be altered to Turkish performances. The Turkish Parliament granted him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which indicates "Father of the Turks", in acknowledgment of the role he played in developing the modern-day Turkish Republic. [16] Additional info He died on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was prospered as President by his long-time Prime Minister İsmet İnönü [18] and was bestowed a state funeral service. His iconic mausoleum in Ankara, developed and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace at Home, Peace worldwide".

In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year on the planet and embraced the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as "the leader of the very first struggle provided versus colonialism and imperialism" and a "impressive promoter of the sense of understanding between individuals and long lasting peace in between the nations of the world which he worked all his life for the advancement of harmony and cooperation between peoples without difference". [19] [20] Atatürk is honored by many memorials and places named in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Reward.

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